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About Karnataka Forest

The state of Karnataka is a part of the highly biodiversity rich regions of India. The state is endowed with great diversity of climate, topography and soils. It spans the seacoast with rich aquatic biodiversity and mangrove swamps at the mouths of estuaries. It harbours verdant tropical evergreen forests, paddy fields, coconut and arecanut orchards on the narrow coast flanked by the hills of Western Ghats. It bears deciduous woods, scrub jungles, fields of sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, ragi and jowar in the Deccan plateau. The different environmental regimes support their own characteristic set of vegetation and animals. Karnataka supports 10% of about total tiger population and about 25% of elephant population of the country.

The state has around
Diversity Number of Species
Flowering Plants4500

The wealth of diversity of domesticated plants and animals in farms also holds much promise. The hill chain of Western Ghats is known to have greater diversity of wild relatives of cultivated plants than any other region of comparable size in the world. The aquatic biodiversity in Karnataka is very rich and harbors many endemic species.

Forest Resources

Forest Resources are the reserves for wildlife and vegetation in different regions of the nation that have several uses and require proper conservation.

Forest Resources relate to the distinctive topography, terrain, wildlife, climate and vegetation of the country. Forest resources in India have always been one of the richest resources. Forests provide renewable natural resources and contribute considerably to the economic development of the nation. Forest plantations comprise a vital part of the forest resources.

Forest Resources provides protection to environment and wildlife. It also enhances water holding capacity of soil and rainfall, helps in gaseous cycles of atmosphere, maintains the soil fertility, checks soil erosion, reduces flood disaster etc. Eventually, people have realised the significance of forests resources and the fact that deforestation threatens the ecology. Thus, people have become more interested and involved in conservation of forest resources in India.

Forest Types

Karnataka is one such state where it has magnificent forests in the India. From the evergreen forests of Western Ghat to scrub or thorny forests in plain areas.
  1. Evergreen and Semi-evergreen:

    An evergreen forest is a forest consisting entirely or mainly of evergreen trees that retain green foliage all year round and Semi-evergreen forests are generally considered as a transitional stage between evergreen and moist deciduous forests. These forests are characterised by ever¬green trees mixed with deciduous having typical features like less dense canopy, grew gariousness, frequent buttressed trunks, thicker and rougher barks, and heavy climbers. Ex: Dipterocarpus indicus, Hopea parivflora,Myristica fauna, Gymnacranthera canarica, Vateria indica etc.,

  2. Moist Deciduous:

    Temperate deciduous forests are located in the areas that has moderate rainfall and temperature and with cold winters. These are the typical monsoon forests in areas where the amount of annual rainfall ranges between 100 cm and 150 cm with mean annual temperature of 24°C to 27°C, and humidity percentage of 60 to 80. They mostly occur along the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, north-eastern part of the Peninsula . teak (Tectona gradis) are commercially the most significant species; occupying the relatively wetter north-eastern parts of the Peninsula. Ex: Terminalia, Largerstroemia, preterocarpus, Xylia, Tectona and Anogeissus etc.,

  3. Dry Deciduous Forest:

    The tropical deciduous forests shed leaves during December (in Northern Hemisphere) as water becomes scarce. This type is a degraded version of the moist deciduous. It occupies a vast area of the country between moist deciduous (in the east) and tropical thorn (in the west) forests. Ex: Acacias, Hardwikicia, Neem, Pongamia, Somida, Santalam albam, Ficus etc.,

  4. Scrub and Thorny Forest:

    These forests are confined to areas where the rainfall is very low. Here due to paucity of rainfall the trees are stunted with large patches of coarse grasses. The typical vegetation consists of widely spaced acacias, euphorbias including the typical spiny and thorny varieties and clumps of wild palms (Phoenix Sylvester's) here and there. Ex: Acacia species, Balanites roxburghii, Cordia myxa, Capparis spp., Prosopis spp., Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Diospyros chloroxylon, Carissa carandas, and Phoenix sylvestris etc.,

  5. Un-wooded:

    These forests are mainly grass lands and waste land.